!” Williston named this as a new species, E. [16] In 1943 both specimens were assigned to the new genus Thalassiosaurus by Welles,[37] who then assigned the latter to the new genus and species Alzadasaurus kansasensis in 1952. He named it as a new species, E. serpentinus, in 1877, and differentiated it by the lack of compression in the rear neck vertebrae, the presence of few sessile ribs among the first few dorsals, and the presence of "weak angles" below the front tail vertebrae. [8] Leidy subsequently moved E. orientalis to the now dubious genus Discosaurus in the following year. Thin plate lizard Within this family, he considered the former to be distinguished by a longer neck with compressed vertebrae, and the latter by a shorter neck with square, depressed vertebrae. In Jurassic Park: Builder, Elasmosaurus can be created in the Aquatic section as a limited edition crustaceavore, even though in reality, it was a piscivore. Plesiosaurs (Greek for "almost lizards") were large, long-necked, four-flippered marine reptiles that paddled their way through the oceans, lakes, rivers, and swamps of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. [58] Pravoslavlev recognized another species from New Zealand, E. hoodii, named by Owen in 1870 as Plesiosaurus hoodii based on a neck vertebra. The known teeth of the front part of the lower jaw were large fangs, and the teeth at the back of the jaws appear to have been smaller. Elasmosaurus ("plate lizard") is one of the more famous members of the Plesiosaurs, or near lizards, a major group of Mesozoic Era marine reptiles. One of these measures about 12.8 meters (42 ft) in length. However, it is relatively poorly known. [61] However, part of the specimen was accidentally thrown out during the relocation of the Southern Methodist University's paleontological collections. Elasmosaurus had three pectoral vertebrae, which is a common number for elasmosaurids. Combined, the specimen consists of neck, back and tail vertebrae, phalanges, a tooth, limb elements, 110 gastroliths, and unidentifiable fragments. [80], Topology A: Benson et al. It features the Megalodon from the 2018 movie, The Meg, and the Mosasaur from the 2015 movie, Jurassic World. Elasmosaurus is one of the most widely recognised plesiosaur names and has become a stereotype for all elasmosaurids. A humerus of an unidentified subadult elasmosaurid was found with bite marks matching the teeth of the shark Cretoxyrhina,[93] while a crushed Woolungasaurus skull has tooth-marks matched to the pliosaur Kronosaurus. [14][65] He subsequently abandoned this idea in his 1869 description of Elasmosaurus, where he stated he had based it on Leidy's erroneous interpretation of Cimoliasaurus. Plesiosaur anatomy was sufficiently well known at the time that Cope should not have made the mistake, according to Davidson. [81][88], Although elasmosaurids are commonly found with several gastroliths, Elamosaurus has only been found uncontroversially with a pebble lodged in the neural arch of one of its hindmost tail-vertebrae. The Meg vs. Mosasaurus (Jurassic World) is a What-If? It was a reptile. The Plesiosaur has an almost teardrop-shaped body. [24] In 2005 Sachs suggested that Elasmosaurus was closely related to Styxosaurus,[2] and in 2008 Druckenmiller and Russell placed it as part of a polytomy with two groups, one containing Libonectes and Terminonatator, the other containing Callawayasaurus and Hydrotherosaurus. Most of the neck vertebrae were compressed sideways, and bore a longitudinal crest or keel along the sides. [42] However, in his 1906 revision of North American plesiosaurs, Williston regarded the vertebrae as "all more or less mutilated", and found no distinct differences between the remains of E. intermedius and E. [82], A 2015 study concluded that locomotion was mostly done by the fore-flippers while the hind-flippers functioned in maneuverability and stability;[83] a 2017 study concluded that the hind-flippers of plesiosaurs produced 60% more thrust and had 40% more efficiency when moving in harmony with the fore-flippers. In contrast, Kronosaurus, an Early Cretaceous pliosaur from Australia, grew to about… Two great continental watersheds drained into it from east and west, diluting its waters and bringing resources in eroded silt that formed shifting river delta systems along its low-lying coasts. This led to antagonism between Cope, who was embarrassed by the mistake, and Marsh, who brought up the mistake repeatedly for decades. 10 Facts About Elasmosaurus, Ancient Marine Reptile. [28] Glenn Storrs considered both to be indeterminate elasmosaurids in 1999;[45] in the same year, Carpenter assigned both to Styxosaurus snowii. [21] In 1952 the American paleontologist Samuel Welles estimated the body length to have been 10.3 meters (34 ft). It probably had six teeth in each premaxilla, and the teeth preserved there were formed like large fangs. Thus, Elasmosaurus would have been unable to swim in one direction while moving its head and neck either horizontally or vertically in a different direction. [2][3][4], In December 1867 Turner and others from Fort Wallace returned to the site and recovered much of the vertebral column, as well as concretions that contained other bones; the material had a combined weight of 360 kilograms (800 lb). Since its initial assignment to the Elasmosauridae, the relationships of Brancasaurus had been considered well supported, and an elasmosaurid position was recovered by O'Keefe's 2004 analysis[71] and Franziska Großmann's 2007 analysis. [3] Additional plesiosaur fossils were recovered near the original locality in 1954, 1991, 1994, and 1998, including back vertebrae, ribs, gastralia (belly ribs), and gastroliths. The Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals of Kansas. Only one incomplete Elasmosaurus skeleton is definitely known, consisting of a fragmentary skull, the spine, and the pectoral and pelvic girdles, and a single species is recognized today; other species are now considered invalid or have been moved to other genera. The neural spine was low and directed upwards and back. The neck ribs were semicircular to quadratic in side view, and were directed rather straight down. Although he suggested that the vertebral column of the trunk did not allow for much vertical movement due to the elongated neural spines which nearly form a continuous line with little space between adjacent vertebrae, he envisaged the neck and tail to have been much more flexible: "The snake-like head was raised high in the air, or depressed at the will of the animal, now arched swan-like preparatory to a plunge after a fish, now stretched in repose on the water or deflexed in exploring the depths below". Some material from Scania, Sweden, was assigned to P. helmerseni in 1885 by H. There was little sedimentation on the eastern margin of the Seaway; the western margin accumulated a thick pile of sediments eroded from the western land mass. [34] In 1962 Welles further subdivided elasmosaurids based on whether they possessed pelvic bars formed from the fusion of the ischia, with Elasmosaurus and Brancasaurus being united in the subfamily Elasmosaurinae by their sharing of completely closed pelvic bars. 4"; he excavated it with the help of George B. Cledenning and Capt. [75] These genera had all previously been considered to be elasmosaurids by Carpenter, Großmann, and other researchers. [2], Today, the incomplete holotype specimen, catalogued as ANSP 10081, is the only definite specimen of Elasmosaurus. The generic name means "thin-plate reptile", and the specific name means "flat-tailed". Death Battle by I'm Lynda. Cope also rejected the idea that Elasmosaurus and Discosaurus were identical, and noted that the latter and Cimoliasaurus did not have any distinguishing features. Reward: 11,280 Food "A relatively slow swimmer, the Elasmosaurus hides itself in the darker depths and uses its long neck to ambush schools of fish." Elasmosaurus (/ɪˌlæzməˈsɔːrəs, -moʊ-/;) is a genus of plesiosaur that lived in North America during the Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous period, about 80.5 million years ago. The type and only known specimen of Elasmosaurus platyurus (ANSP 10081) includes the tip of the snout, occipital condyle, and the majority of the vertebral column. At its deepest, it may have been only 800 or 900 meters (2,600 or 3,000 ft) deep. [100] In addition to Elasmosaurus, other marine reptiles present include fellow plesiosaurs Libonectes, Styxosaurus, Thalassomedon, Terminonatator, Polycotylus, Brachauchenius, Dolichorhynchops and Trinacromerum;[101] the mosasaurs Mosasaurus, Halisaurus, Prognathodon, Tylosaurus, Ectenosaurus, Globidens, Clidastes, Platecarpus and Plioplatecarpus;[7] and the sea turtles Archelon, Protostega, Porthochelys and Toxochelys. [81] It has also been suggested that the long necks of plesiosaurs served as a snorkel and allowed them to breathe air while the body remained underwater. [85] Evidence for live-birth in plesiosaurs is provided by the fossil of an adult Polycotylus with a single fetus inside. The Mosasaurus was a genus of mosasaurs, marine reptiles that lived during the Cretaceous period. [9][29] In an 1870 reply to Leidy, Cope himself stated that the generic placement of E. orientalis was in doubt, and that he had illustrated it with a short neck due to believing this was the condition of Cimoliasaurus. In a reply to Leidy, Cope claimed that he had been misled by the fact that Leidy had arranged the vertebrae of Cimoliasaurus in the reverse order in his 1851 description of that genus, and pointed out that his reconstruction had been corrected. This section is taken from the Dinosaur Field Guide. At up to 40 feet (12 m) long, Elasmosaurus was among the largest of the long-necked plesiosaurs. [15] In 1986 a three-dimensional reconstruction of the holotype skeleton was completed and is now displayed at the ANSP. [24][43], An elasmosaurid specimen was found by Handel Martin in Logan County, Kansas in 1889. [61] In 1997 Carpenter reconsidered the differences between the two species, and found them sufficient to place E. morgani in its own genus, which he named Libonectes. [34], Welles took issue with White's classification in his 1943 revision of plesiosaurs, noting that White's characteristics are influenced by both preservation and ontogeny. Cope had also discovered another large skeleton that bore great resemblance to the known remains of E. orientalis from the black shale of the "Cretaceous bed No. [24] Finally, two exceptionally large dorsal vertebrae collected by Charles Sternberg in 1895 were named E. sternbergii by Williston, but were considered indeterminate by Storrs. It was based on Schröder's Pliosaurus (?) Yet, in an accompanying illustration Cope showed a short-necked Elasmosaurus confronting a Dryptosaurus (then Laelaps), with a plesiosaur-like Mosasaurus and other animals in the background. The stones match rock from 600 kilometers (370 mi) away from where the specimen was found. [34] In 1995 Nathalie Bardet and Pascal Godefroit also recognized it as an elasmosaurid, albeit indeterminate. Much like the heated debates that plague comic book shops around the world of Batman vs. Superman, Hulk vs. Wolverine, Iron man vs. Batman, the Justice League vs. Evo 3. [16] In 1943 Welles moved E. snowii to its own genus, Styxosaurus,[37] where the species has remained. However, none of these species are still definitely referable to the genus Elasmosaurus today, and most of them either have been moved to genera of their own or are considered dubious names, nomina dubia – that is, with no distinguishing features, and therefore of questionable validity. The surface (or facet) where the axis articulated with the next vertebra had an oval outline, and an excavation for the neural canal in the middle of its upper edge. 7 Results 8 Trivia 9 Poll A good fisherman always has stories of … [50], In a 1918 review of the geographic distribution and evolution of Elasmosaurus, Pravoslavlev provisionally assigned three other previously named species to Elasmosaurus;[48] his taxonomic opinions have not been widely followed. [3][9][11][12][13][14], Because of Cope's reputation as a brilliant paleontologist, it has been questioned why he would make such an obvious anatomical error. 11-14 metres (36-46 ft) The post-zygapophyses reached over the level of the centrum with the back half of their length. The crest would have served to anchor the musculature of the neck. It has a blocky body, thin, short flippers, and a miniscule tail. [26] He distinguished E. orientalis from E. platyurus by the more strongly developed processes known as parapophyses on the vertebrae, in which he considered it to approach closer to Cimoliasaurus; however, he still assigned it to Elasmosaurus on account of its large size and angled sides. Elasmosaurus is number 119 of the Carnivore Threes that can be created in Jurassic Park III: Park Builder. [50] Storrs, Arkhangelsky, and Efimov were less specific, labelling it as an indeterminate plesiosaur;[51] this classification was followed by Alexander Averianov and V. K. Popov in 2005. Elasmosaurus was the first major fossil discovery in Kansas (and the largest from there at the time), and marked the beginning of a fossil collecting rush that sent thousands of fossils from Kansas to prominent museums on the American east coast. The ANSP thanked Turner for his "very valuable gift" at their meeting in December 1868, and Turner visited the museum during spring, at a time when Cope was absent. While polycotylids had previously been part of the Pliosauroidea, Carpenter moved polycotylids to become the sister group of the elasmosaurids based on similarities, thus implying that polycotylids and pliosauroids evolved their short necks independently. Jurassic Park: BuilderJurassic Park III: Park BuilderJurassic World: The Game. Elasmosaurus, like many plesiosaurs, had a small head at the end of a long neck and a mouth full of needle-like teeth. Elasmosaurus Fossil range: Late Cretaceous Elasmosaurus Scientific classification Order: Plesiosauria Suborder: Plesiosauroidea Family: Elasmosauridae Genus: Elasmosaurus Cope, 1868 Species: E. ischiadicus E. kurskensis E. marshii E. nobilis E. orskensis E. platyurus E. serdobensis E. serpentinus. [3] It was only redescribed in detail in 2005 by the German paleontologist Sven Sachs. The number of premaxillary teeth distinguished Elasmosaurus from primitive plesiosauroids and most other elasmosaurids, which usually had fewer. [53] Wilhelm Deecke moved chilensis to Pliosaurus in 1895,[54] a classification which was acknowledged by Pravoslavlev. [79] Ketchum and Benson's 2010 analysis included Elasmosaurus in the former group. In 2002 the American art historian Jane P. Davidson noted that the fact that other scientists early on had pointed out Leidy's error argues against this explanation, adding that Cope was not convinced he had made a mistake. From these remains, Cope named a new species of barracuda, Sphyraena carinata. Elasmosaurus can be created in the Aquatic Park of Jurassic World: The Game. less specialized) than other elasmosaurids with the exception of Libonectes. [66] Charles Andrews elaborated on differences between elasmosaurids and pliosaurids in 1910 and 1913. The eyes of the animal were at the top of the head and allowed them to see directly upward. The bullets landing on it created many sparks before falling into the ground. [90], In 1869 Cope noted that scales and teeth of six species of fish had been discovered directly beneath the vertebrae of the Elasmosaurus holotype, and theorized that these fish would have had formed the diet of the animal. It could swim into schools of fish, moving its head back and forth to catch them. [24] Another species, E. nobilis, was named by Williston from very large remains discovered by Mudge in 1874 in Jewell County, Kansas. Enjoy! (2013)[74] (?) So far, Elasmosaurus hasn't appeared in any of the films or the novels although a skull of a plesiosaur is in Jurassic Park: The Game and it possibly belongs to Elasmosaurus possibly proving it is in the film canon. [15][2], Elasmosaurus had four sacral vertebrae (the fused vertebrae that form the sacrum connected to the pelvis), a number typical of elasmosaurids. It was long exhibited, but is now stored in a cabinet with other assigned fragments. Download. If the animal moved the anterior part of the body in a certain direction, it would cause the rest of the body to move in that direction. [88], The exact function of the neck of elasmosaurids is unknown,[22] though it may have been important for hunting. Mosasaur fossils are fossils of the prehistoric sea monster called Mosasaurus. [2][24][25], Accompanying his 1869 description of E. platyurus, Cope named another species of Elasmosaurus, E. orientalis, based on two dorsal vertebrae from New Jersey. Elasmosaurids were well adapted for aquatic life, and used their flippers for swimming. [2] Like other elasmosaurids (and plesiosaurs in general), Elasmosaurus would have had large, paddle-like limbs with very long digits. Orientalis to the now dubious genus Discosaurus in the following year be in! Elasmosaurus had three pectoral vertebrae, which usually had fewer large fangs other researchers the top of the prehistoric monster. 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